Wednesday, August 13, 2008

Chapter 2,3 and 6 available to download


Chapter 2,3 and 6 is available for download now

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 6

*subscribe to my blog for any new updates..good luck :okay:

Notes Chapter 6:System Admin Task

8:55 AM 8/13/2008

Chapter 6 :System Admin Task


-Setting the run level
-system services
-user management
-network setting
-scheduling jobs
-Quota management
-backup and restore
-adding and removing software/package
-setting a printer
-monitoring the system(general,logs)
-Monitoring any specific services

running,.EG:DNS,DHCP,Web,NIS,NPT,Proxy etc..

3 types of backup

1) Full backup
2) Incremental backup
3) Differential backup

INIT RunLevels

The following runlevels are define in Linux:

0- Halt(Do not set initdefalut to this)<--critical part

1- Single user mode(in safe mode,single user mode,can do the system

administrator task,main level mode)

2-Multiuser,without network(the same as 3 ,if you do not have

networking,can permit other client to join)

3- text Mode

4- unused(reserved for new development )

5- graphical Mode(GUI Mode)

6- Reboot(Do not set initdefault to this)<--critical part

The Default runlevel for a system to boot to is configured in


eg : id:5:initdefault:

In GUI :Application --> System Setting -->Server Setting --> Services

Linux Services

There are 113 daemons(services that running in the background),Out of

them the following are most widely used
*in linux,we manipulate the daemon to become the server

1)apmd : Power Management
2)Autofs :Automount Services
3)crond :Periodic Command Scheduler
4)cups :common Unix Printing System
5)dhcpd :The DHCP server
6)dovecot: IMAP (internet message Access protocol) and PP3(post office

7)gpm :mouse
8)httpd :Apache web server

iptalbles :Kernel based packet filtering firewall
kudzu :finds new hardware
mysqld :MySQL server
named :BIND server
network :networking
nfs :Network file share
nfslock :NFs file locking
ntpd :NTP (network time protocol)Server
portmap :RPC(Remote procedure Call)Support
postgresql :The prostgreasql Database engine
sendmail :Sendmail mail server
smb :Samba network services
snmpd :Simple network management protocol
squid :Squid proxy server
sshd :open SSH and SFTP server
syslog :system logging
xinetd :(Super Daemon),provides suppor for telnet
ypbind :NIS server

Start/stop boot time services /etc/rc.d/rc3.d or /etc/rc.d/rc5.d

All services startup scripts which start with S will start at boot time

and all startup scripts which start with K will not start.

Creating a new user account


add an entry in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file.You will have to

create the user directory and assing a pssword to the user

/etc/passwd File holds user account info

login name
user id
group id

/etc/shadow contains the encrypted password information

Suspending a user account

-put a * as start of password field in /etc/shadow
-change login shell to /sbin/nologin
-use GUI to suspend user
Remove user id

#userdel -r- (username)

Submit next wednesday
Find Run level Linux

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Assignment 1 and 2


Today En. SyaifulNizam have gave us two assignment.

Assignment 1

(Perform 3 or 4 people in one group)

Make a Slide Show Presentation(Power Point or Flash),Find business or Enterprise Network Architecture or Network Diagram,then identify the problem,advantage,disadvantage and come out with a solution which is new architecture (include the NOS,Webserver or file system in the architecture)

Due Date is 6/8/2008

Assignment 2

(Perform 3 or 4 people in one group)

Make a Slide Show Presentation(Power Point or Flash),

1.Explain what is RAID O, RAID 1 and RAID 5,explain the technology used and how many raid is available.

2.What type of RAID is use in Linux

Due Date is 6/8/2008

Any question please proceed with En.Syaiful Nizam


Tuesday, July 22, 2008

To those who cant download using adrive

Salam and Salam Sejahtera

To those who cant download using adrive,plz click this link to download..xbole jugak tolong datang berjumpa dengan saya..

Click Here To Download Chapter 1

Today we learn how to install linux Red Hat on virtual machine,but seems there's problem installing the OS using Vista OS(hampeh) we will continue our lesson on how to install RedHat linux on next class..

Monday, July 21, 2008

Network Operating System :Chapter 1

Assalamualaikum dan Salam Sejahtera

Thx to En Syaifulnizam for the Chapter 1 slide show,now u can download it by clicking on the link below

Click Here to Download Chapter 1

*if the link is down please report to me as soon as possible,thank you


Friday, July 18, 2008

Network Operating System 1 : Introduction to Kernel

What is Kernel?

Kernel is the operating system, performing core tasks such as managing memory and disk access as well interfacing with the hardware that makes up your system.

Kernel can handles the lower level task of actually sending appropriate instructions to a device, however if you add new device, if you add new device, you may have to enable support for it in the kernel.

This procedure to reconfigure is call as Building or Compiling the Kernel

Kernel Version

Linux kernel consists of three segments :

1 ) The Major

2 ) The Minor

3 ) The Revision Numbers.

1 )The Major number increments with major changes in the kernel.

2 )The Minor number indicates stability.

3 )The Revision Numbers refers to the corrected versions. As bugs are discovered and corrected and as new features are introduced, new revisions of a kernel are released.

a)For the Minor number, Even numbers are used for stable release, Odd numbers is reserved for development release which may unstable.

b)The revision numbers refers to the corrected versions. As bugs are discovered and corrected and as new features are introduced, new revisions of a kernel are released.

For example how to read major,minor,revision numbers :

Kernel 2.6.11-1-1369

2 is Major Number(increment of major change)

6 is Minor Number(indicates stability odd or even numbers)

11 is Revision(refer to corrected version)

1369 is a Patch Number

You could have more than one version of the kernel installed on your system.

Type uname –r (or –a for detailed info)

New Kernel are released on two different tracks,a stable tracks and a development track.

The stable kernel would be 2.6 and development kernel is 2.7

Fedora Core includes the most up-to-date stable kernel in its release. Linux kernel are available at

One reason you my need to upgrade your kernel often is to provide support for new hardware or for a features not support by your distribution version.

Reference The Complete Reference ,Redhat Enterprise Linux and Fedora Core 4 by Richard L.Peterson-Part VI:System Administrator 709-710


Network Operating System 1 : Introduction to Linux

Network Operating System 1 : Introduction to Linux

Introduction to Linux

Linux is a fast, stable, and open source operating system for PC computers and workstations that features professional- level Internet services, extensive development tools, fully functional graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

Linux History
Linux is developed by Linus Torvalds in 1990 along with others programmers around the world.Others operating systems is constantly being upgraded to keep up with the ever-changing capabilities of PC hardware,different with Linux, linux is a PC version of the Unix operating system that has been used for decades on mainframe and minicomputers.Linux brings the :
FESS(stand for)

Linux has become the premier platform for open source software,much of it developed by the Free Software Foundation’s GNU project.

- Linux has everything you need to set up ,support and maintain a fully functional network
- Linux is Free Open Source Operating System under GNU’s Free Public License.
- Linux is more flexibility, efficiency, stability , speed.


Reference The Complete Reference, Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora Core 4 by Richard L.Peterson,Part I Introduction to Linux
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